A retail payment division of the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta has released an in-depth study on the evolution of biometrics and other authentication technologies.Developed by the Retail Payments Risk Forum, the working paper evaluates authentication methods to address the challenge of increasing the confidence level of authenticating customers without adding friction to transactions.The bank's risk forum recommends that biometric authentication programmes be transparent, appropriate and have strict privacy controls.”The enrollment process as well as the ongoing operation of the program should be clearly explained to the user and, when appropriate, the user should be able to control the use of the data captured”.It also recognizes in the document that there are a number of other risks and control issues associated with biometrics, particularly enrollment, spoofing attacks and data interception.”The enrollment stage represents a major point of risk, when the raw measurement data can be compromised or a false identity inserted. For this reason, there should be highly detailed procedures in place to ensure sufficient controls related to personnel and processes”.The report concludes by stating that because there is no “silver bullet” biometric, that multi-factor authentication schemes exponentially increase the confidence level of validating the proper user of an application.”However, adding other authentication requirements potentially increases the amount of friction between the user and the service provider, with the possibility of causing the user to be dissatisfied to the point of abandoning the transaction.”